Extrusion of grain for cows

Tuesday, 09 June 2015 10:40

Researches of essentially new recipes of mixed fodders-concentrates for the milk cows applied during the stall period of the maintenance in whom part of the wheat and barley is extruded. In this method of processing of forages before feeding has a certain effect. The matter is that during extrusion comprehensibility of nutrients sharply raises as a result of swelling and rupture of covers of vegetative cages, there is a denaturation of fibers. The product gets finely porous, better digestibility for digestive system of cows. All it occurs in a forage as a result of intensive and short processing of grain by high temperature and pressure. Thus difficult structures of fibers and carbohydrates break up to more simple, a cellulose on secondary sugar, starch on simple sugar. In a short space of time processing of grain the protein has no time for coagulation -vitamins and nutritious properties of a product as a result remain. At the expense of sharp pressure drop at an exit of the warmed up weight of grain there is "explosion" (volume increase) product that does to its more accessible enzymes of a gastroenteric path of animals, thereby raises comprehensibility of the processed forage.

To extrude all weight of the mixed fodder consisting of numerous components, need to much energy and the considerable part of the vitamins which are a part of a premix, under the influence of high-temperature processing will collapse. And if extrusion of a part of grain components which is favourable economically and to enter the processed grain into mixed fodder structure comprehensibility of other, raw components, will increase probably. As a result feeding to milk cows of mixed fodders with extruded wheat and barley grain will allow to improve full value of their food and to raise level of efficiency and quality indicators of dairy production.

Standard mixed fodder for milk cows has been improved by processing of grain of wheat and barley (on 15 % from total grain content) by extrusion method.

The theoretical and practical importance of the received results of research.

Results of the spent researches expand and supplement available data on exrusion’s influence on a chemical compound of grain of wheat and barley. Researches have revealed the most effective recipe of mixed fodder-concentrate №3 for milk cows with inclusion on 15 % extruded wheat and barley grains. Addition of such mixed fodder-concentrate to the basic diet of experimental animals promoted increase of daily yields of milk of cows on 6,5 %, fat content of milk on 0,1 % and profitability level on 4,6 % in comparison with a control variant where standard mixed fodder-concentrate without preliminary processing of grain components was fed.

The experimental part is spent in conditions dairy – a commodity farm on milk cows Holstein breeds.

Scientifically-economic experience spent on four groups of milk cows, on 12 goals in each group. Experimental animals in groups selected for a principle of steams-analogs taking into account a month of a lactation, live weight, efficiency for 305 days of the previous lactation, a daily yield of milk and fat content of milk (for formation of groups).

Extrusion of grains of wheat and barley has been done by grain extruder at temperature 130-140°С and pressure 2-3 МПа, time of a finding of initial raw materials in the unit made 8-13 с.

Eatness (or palatability) of forages considered every ten days by carrying out of control feedings. For sampling of milk, blood, cicatricial contents on the analysis in each group it has been selected on three heads of cows.

RESULTS OF RESEARCHES

Chemical compound and nutritiousness of grain of wheat and barley before and after extrusion

The chemical compound and nutritiousness of grain of wheat and barley before and after extrusion are presented in table

From table data it is visible that extrusion has positively affected a chemical compound and nutritiousness of grain of wheat and barley.

Physical processes (high temperature and pressure) at extrusion were positively reflected in the maintenance crude and digestible protein. These nutrients was more in the processed grain of wheat and barley accordingly on 3,3 and 3,6 % (a crude protein) and 4,0 and 5,3 % (digestible protein). The quantity of crude fat in extruded grain has a little decreased in wheat on 4,2, and in barley - on 4,4 % as a fat part at a high pressure it was lost.

Table - the Chemical compound and nutritiousness of grain of wheat and barley before and after extrusion

Factor

Grain

Wheat before exrusion

Wheat after exrusion

Barley before exrusion

Barley before exrusion

Powerfeed units

1,15

1,20

1,00

1,05

Dry, g

860,2

896,2

852,5

890,5

Dry protein, g

129,4

133,7

111,3

115,3

Digestible protein, g

116,7

121,4

84,1

88,6

Crude oil, g

22,2

21,3

23,3

22,3

Crude cellulose, g

14,8

7,9

47,1

40,0

Nitrogen-freeextractive substances, g

702,3

709,5

635,2

642,7

Sugar, g

22,5

25,9

2,5

5,8

Calcium, g

0,9

0,9

1,9

1,9

Phosphorus, g

3,4

3,4

3,8

3,8

Iron, mg

45,3

45,3

48,1

48,1

Copper, mg

6,4

6,4

4,5

4,5

Zinc, mg

29,1

29,1

33,1

33,1

Manganese, mg

47,2

47,2

14,2

14,2

Cobalt, mg

0,08

0,08

0,30

0,30

Iodine, mg

0,07

0,07

0,25

0,25

Carotin, mg

1,2

1,2

0,4

0,4

Vitamin E, mg

12,1

11,9

52,2

51,1

The percent of the maintenance of a cellulose in the processed forage on the contrary decreased as a result of its disintegration on secondary sugar. And in grain of its wheat became less on 87,3, and in barley - on 17,8 %. The initial maintenance of a cellulose in grain of wheat without processing was 14,8 g/kg, against 47,1 g/kg in barley. Probably the cellulose of grain of wheat was more accessible to physical influence, than that in barley.

The most essential increase was in sugar - in extruded barley – in 2,3 times, and in that of wheat only on 15,1 %, in comparison with grain before processing.

The mineral part of a chemical compound of grain of wheat and barley remained without changes, and here the maintenance of vitamin E under the influence of high temperature was insignificantly reduced in extruded wheat and barley grain accordingly to 1,7 and 2,2 %.

CONCLUSIONS

1. Usage of extrusion at processing of grain of wheat and barley allows to increase in it, in comparison with the natural grain, following quantity of nutrients (in %):

- Quantity of exchange energy on 3,3 and 3,8;

- the solid maintenance on 4,2 and 4,5;

- A crude protein on 3,3 and 3,6;

- digestible protein on 4,0 and 5,3;

- Powerfeed units on 1,0 and 1,2;

- Sugar on 15,1 and 2,3;

And, on the contrary, to lower:

- Crude fat on 4,2 and 4,5;

- A crude cellulose on 87,3 and 17,8;

- Vitamin E on 1,7 and 2,2.

2. Inclusion in experimental mixed fodders for milk cows extruded wheat and barley grains both separately and in a complex on 15 % of weight of each component has allowed to increase in comparison with a control variant (in %):

- Power nutritiousness on 1,0-2,1;

- The maintenance of digestible protein on 0,4-0,9;

- Powerfeed units on 0,2-0,4;

- Sugar on 1,6-3,2;

And, on the contrary, to lower:

- Quantity of a crude cellulose on 1,5-3,1;

- Vitamin E on 0,1-0,2.

3. Feeding to milk cows of experimental mixed fodders-concentrates with extruded wheat and barley grain raised consumption vikia-oat haylage and a corn silo accordingly on 0,9-3,5 and 0,5-2,6 %.

4. Use in a diet of milk cows of mixed fodder-concentrate with complex inclusion in it extruded wheat and barley grains on 15 % of weight of each component allows to increase a daily average yield of milk of milk by 6,5 % (p <0,05) and the maintenance in it of fat, fiber, carotin and vitamin A on 0,10; 0,12; 4,8 and 7,0 % accordingly.

5. Introduction in diets of milk cows of mixed fodders-concentrates with separate and complex inclusion in them extruded wheat and barley grains on 15 % of weight of each component raises intensity of exchange processes in an organism of animals; the quantity of hemoglobin increases in blood on 10,6-14,5 (p <0,01), эритроцитов on 16,2-20,6 % (p <0,05-0,01), leukocytes on 14,8-24,7 % (p <0,05-0,01) and an alpha - глобулинов on 1,7-2,6 % (p1-4 <0,05).

6. Feeding of milk cows by mixed fodder-concentrate with separate or complex inclusion in it extruded grain of wheat and barley doesn't render negative influence on digestion processes; in research groups of animals the size pH cicatricial contents on 0,13-0,29 (p <0,05) and nitrogen residual on 0,005-0,009 г % (p1-4 <0,05) has decreased and, on the contrary, concentration of nitrogen of the general and ammoniac accordingly on 0,006 - 0,016 г % (p1-4 <0,05) has raised; 0,4-4,1 mg % (p> 0,05); 0,40-0,91 mmol/100мл (p <0,05-0,01).

7. Inclusion in diets of milk cows of mixed fodders - of concentrates with extruded wheat and barley grain entered separately or in a complex, changed structure of behavior of animals; duration of reception of forages of a diet, a cud lying and standing and rest (the dream + lies and stay nothing doing) increased accordingly on 0,8 – 1,1; 1,0 and 0,8 – 1,8 % from daily time.

8. Economic calculations have shown that it is the most favourable to use experimental mixed fodder-concentrate in which extruded wheat and barley grain was entered in a complex on 15 % of weight of each component in feeding of cows. It allows to increase quantity of profit on 10,0 22,5 and profitability level by 2,1-4,6 % in comparison with other variants of experience.

THE OFFER

At feeding of milk cows it is recommended to use experimental mixed fodder-concentrate in which extruded wheat and barley grain is entered in a complex on 15 % of weight of each component.

Use of such mixed fodder-concentrate raises dairy efficiency of cows on 6,5 and profitability level on 4,6 %.

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