FULL FAT SOYA

APPLICATION

high protein (up to 42%) ingredient of compound feeds for poultry, animals and fish

 

ADVANTAGES

  • substitute of full value of animal protein
  • reduced content of urease to to safety level 0.05 - 0.2 pH
  • minimum degradation of food nutrients while improving the digestibility of protein
  • killed microorganisms

 

RAW MATERIAL

soya beans, soya kernels, milled soya

  • Parameter Value
  • Processing temperature, ºС: max 150

Soybeans are the most important crops in the world and are grown for a variety of agricultural and industrial uses. There are eight major oilseed meals in the world. Soybean meal represents more than 50% of the total oilseed meal production. Soybean as complete feed contains soya proteins that are necessary for the rapid growth of the animals, but the animals themselves are produce those proteins in very small quantities.

Soya is much richer in essential amino acids, than grain crops. For example, the lysine in soybean meal at 2.5 - 3 times higher than in wheat. And soybean oil contains very useful lecithin and unsaturated fatty acids. Soybeans have good mineral composition: they have twice more iron, potassium 3,5 - 4 times more, twice more thiamin (vitamin B) than in cereals.

Raw soybeans cannot be used as such for animal feed or human food, because they contain several different antinutritional factors.


These factors are
a) Trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors;
b) Phytohaemagglutinins (Lectins);
c) Urease;
d) Allergenic factors; and
e) Lipases and Lipoxygenases.

These factors affect the digestion of soybeans in the stomach. All can be deactivated, modified or reduced through proper heat treatment to minimize or eliminate their adverse effect. Since all these inhibitors are proteins, caution should be taken to assure that no destruction of the oilseed protein occurs. This can be accomplished only through optimum processing and good quality control measures.

Extrusion cooking has some additional advantages, which other methods do not offer, for example a high temperature and shorter time cooking process will minimize degradation of food nutrients while improving the digestibility of protein by denaturation. In addition, during extrusion cooking most of the cells are ruptured making oil available for the animal.

Full-fat extruded soybeans - a product of processing of soybeans to removal of substances harmful to humans and animals. Used as a raw material for feed or other soybean products of food, feed and technical. Properly processed full fat soybeans are a valuable feed ingredient because of their energy, protein, linoleic acid, vitamin E and lecithin contents.


Optimally processed extruded full fat soybeans result in the following objectives:
1. Minimize trypsin inhibitors
Full fat soybeans are thermally processed to destroy anti-nutritional factors and to increase oil availability while preserving the nutritional quality of the protein. The major anti-nutritional factor of concern in raw soybeans is a trypsin inhibitor. Trypsin inhibitor is a protease that is harmful to most animals and humans, and nutritionists have documented this effect conclusively. This protease enzyme can be inactivated by heat treatment. A reduction of at least 85% of the trypsin inhibitor units is considered necessary by feed technologists to avoid nutritional problems.

2. Release of intra-cellular oil and natural tocopherols
(Vitamin E) for a better digestion and stability and to facilitate the physical extraction of the oil The cooked full fat soybean can then immediately enter a mechanical press where the majority of the oil is removed. This oil can be used for other processing including bio-diesel and the production of oils that are "natural" since they have not been through a traditional hexane extraction process. The cake can be used as a protein source for animal feeds. 


The average oil content of full fat soy will be 17-18%. The oil in full fat soy which is properly processed by extrusion is very stable and provides a remarkable long shelf life for such a high fat product.

The long shelf life can be explained by the fact that full fat soy contains a high level of tocopherol and lecithin (4%) that inhibits oxidation of the full fat product. At the same time during extrusion, heat will destroy the enzymes lipase and lipoxigenase which cause rancidity.
This process must be done in a low moisture environment as added water will affect the expelling efficiency and the oil stability. It is usually done with a dry extrusion system.

3. Increase by-pass protein level
Heat treatment through extrusion increases the by-pass protein for ruminants. In dry extrusion utilizing the inherited moisture in the soybeans (9-11%) is sufficient enough to denature the protein without affecting the primary structure or changing the optimum extrusion temperature.

 

 

2015062901

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